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浅析镜头分辨率及MTF测试

浏览: 手机彩票网日期:2017-07-24

MUQIANBAIWANXIANGSUGAOQINGSHEXIANGJIYIYUELAIYUEDUODIYINGYONGYUJIANKONG,YOU100WANXIANGSUSHEXIANGJI、200WANXIANGSUSHEXIANGJI、500WANXIANGSUSHEXIANGJIDENGDENG。SHEXIANGJIDEXIANGSUGAOSHITUXIANGQINGXIDEYIGEFANGMIAN,LINGYIFANGMIANGAOXIANGSUGANGUANGYUANYEYAOPEIYIGAOFENBIANLVDEJINGTOUCAINENGSHIGAOQINGSHEXIANGJIDENENGLIDEYITIXIAN。

镜头分辨率

JINGTOUDEFENBIANLVSHIZHIZAICHENGXIANGPINGMIANSHANG 1 HAOMIJIANJUNEINENGFENBIANKAIDEHEIBAIXIANGJIANDEXIANTIAODUISHU,DANWEISHI“XIANDUI/HAOMI”( lp/mm,line-pairs/mm )。

JINGTOUDUIHEIBAIDENGKUANDECESHIXIANDUITUBINGBUSHIWUXIANKEFENBIANDE。DANGHEIBAIDENGKUANDECESHIXIANDUIMIDUBUGAODESHIHOU,CHENGXIANGPINGMIANCHUHEIBAIXIANTIAOSHIHENQINGXIDE。DANGHEIBAIDENGKUANDECESHIXIANDUIMIDUTIGAOSHI,ZAICHENGXIANGPINGMIANCHUHAISHIKEYIFENBIANCHUHEIBAIXIANTIAO,DANSHIBAIXIANYIBUSHINEIMEBAILE,HEIXIANYEBUSHINEIMEHEILE,BAIXIANHEIXIANDEDUIBIDUJIUHUIXIAJIANG。DANGHEIBAIDENGKUANDECESHIXIANDUIMIDUTIGAODAOMOUYICHENGDU, ZAICHENGXIANGPINGMIANCHUHEIBAIXIANDEDUIBIDUFEICHANGXIAO,HEIBAIXIANTIAODOUBIANCHENGLEHUIDEZHONGJIANSELE,ZHEIJIUDAOLEJINGTOUFENBIANDEJIXIAN。CANJIANTUYI。

镜头分辨极限

图 1

HAODEJINGTOUHECHADEJINGTOUDEFENBIANLVSHIYOUHENDABUTONGDE。CESHIJINGTOUFENBIANLVDEYIZHONGFANGFASHIJIANGDAICEJINGTOUZHUANGZAIYIGEJIAOPIANZHAOXIANGJISHANG。QUPAISHEHEIBAITIAOWENTU(FENBIANLVTUBAN),RANHOUYONGGAOBEIFANGDAJING(JINGTOUFENBIANLVJIANCEYI)JIANCEDIPIANSHANGMEIHAOMIFANWEINEINENGQINGXIFENBIANDEXIANTIAODUISHU,NENGFENBIANDEYUEDUOZEFENBIANLVYUEGAO。ANZHAOWOGUOZHAOXIANGJIJIANCEBIAOZHUN(JB745-65),YIBAN 135 ZHAOXIANGJIDEJINGTOUZHONGXINSHICHANGDADAO37XIANDUI/HAOMI、BIANYUANSHICHANGDADAO22XIANDUI/HAOMI,JIUSUANSHIYIJIJINGTOU。

YONGSHUXIANTIAODEFANGFAQUEDINGFENBIANLVSHIYIZHONGFANGFA,HAIYOUYIZHONGGENGWEIKEGUANDEFANGFASHICELIANGJINGTOUDE MTFHANSHU。

MTF(modulation transfer function DIAOZHICHUANDIHANSHU)YICILAIFANYINGJINGTOUDEFANCHAHEFENBIANLVBEICEDEHEIBAITIAOWENTU(FENBIANLVTUBAN)BAIXIANZUILIANGCHUYUHEIXIANZUIANCHUDECHABIE,FANYINGLEBEICETUXINGDEFANCHA(HUOCHENGDUIBIDU)。SHEBAIXIANZUIDALIANGDUWEIImax,HEIXIANZUIXIAOLIANGDUWEIImin ,WOMENYONGDIAOZHIDU(Modulation)LAIBIAOSHIFANCHADEDAXIAO。DIAOZHIDUMDINGYIRUXIA:

M=(Imax-Imin)/(Imax+Imin)

TONGYANGTONGGUOJINGTOUCHENGXIANGDETUXINGBAIXIANZUILIANGCHUYUHEIXIANZUIANCHUDECHABIE,FANYINGLECHENGXIANGTUXINGDEFANCHA(DUIBIDU )。SHEBAIXIANZUIDALIANGDUWEII*max,HEIXIANZUIXIAOLIANGDUWEII*min,DIAOZHIDUM*RUXIA:M*=(I*max-I*min)/(I*max+I*min)。

RUGUOYUANLAITUXIANGDEDIAOZHIDUMHEJINGGUOJINGTOUHOUCHENGXIANGDEDIAOZHIDUM*,NEIMEMTFZHIWEI:MTF=M*/M

DANGRAN,WOMENXIWANGYUANLAITUXIANGDEDIAOZHIDUMHEJINGGUOJINGTOUHOUCHENGXIANGDEDIAOZHIDUM*NENG“YUANZHIYUANWEI”,M*=M JI MTF=1,JINGGUOJINGTOUHOUCHENGXIANGDEFANCHA(DUIBIDU)HEYUANTUXIANGYIYANG,DANSHIJIQINGKUANGSHIJINGGUOJINGTOUCHENGXIANGDE M* YAOXIAOYUYUANLAITUXIANGDEM。

DANGBEICEDEHEIBAITIAOWENTUMIDUBUGAOSHI,M*HEMJIHUXIANGDENG。SUIZHEBEICEDEHEIBAITIAOWENTUMIDUZHUJIANTIGAOSHI,I*maxHEI*minHUIZHUJIANJIEJIN,M*HUIZHUJIANBIANXIAO,ZHIDAOWEI 0, MTF YETONGYANGZHUJIANBIANXIAO,ZHIDAOWEI0。

DANGWOMENGAIBIANCESHITUDEHEIBAITIAOWENTUMIDUSHI,SUOCHENGTUXIANGDETIAOWENMIDUJISUODAIBIAODEFENBIANLVHUOCHENGMEIHAOMIXIANDUI( lp/mm)YEZAIGAIBIAN。JIANG lp/mm ZHIZUOWEIHENGZUOBIAOJIANGJINGTOU MTF ZHIZUOZONGZUOBIAOLIANCHENGTU, WOMENJIUDEDAOLE MTF-lp/mm TU,CANJIANTUER。

MTF图

图 2

ZAITUERZHONGZUISHANGMIANSHIYIZUZHUJIANBIANMIDEHEIBAICESHIXIANTIAO,ZHONGJIANSHIYIZUTONGGUOJINGTOUCHENGXIANGDEXIANTIAO,XIATUZHONGHONGSEQUXIANJIUSHIJINGTOUSUOCHENGTUXIANGDELIANGDUBIANHUAQUXIAN,LANSEQUXIANJIUSHI MTF-lp/mm QUXIAN。

DANGHEIBAIXIANTIAOHENCUSHI(FENBIANLVHENDI <10 lp/mm)CESHITUHECHENGXIANGDEHEIBAIXIANTIAODELIANGDUYIYANG,DOUHENHEIHUOHENBAI,TIXIANZAIHONGSEQUXIANJIUSHIQUXIANSHANGXIAFUDUHENDA,LANSEZHEIBUFEN MTF-lp/mm QUXIANDOUJIEJIN 100%。DANGCESHIXIANTIAOBIANMITONGGUOJINGTOUCHENGXIANGDEBAIXIANTIAOJIUHUIBIANAN,HEIXIANTIAOYEBUZENMEHEILE,KAN 40lp/mm CHU,DAIBIAOHEIBAILIANGDUDEHONGXIANFUDUBIANXIAO,JIFANCHABIANXIAO(I*max-I*min),DIAOZHIDUM*BIANXIAO,SUOYILANSEDEMTFZHIXIAJIANGDAO50%。JINYIBUTIGAOHEIBAICESHIXIANTIAOMIDU,RUSHANGTUDEJIEWEICHU200 lp/mm DAIBIAOHEIBAILIANGDUDEHONGXIANFUDUBIANDEFEICHANGXIAO,QUYUHEIBAIDEZHONGJIANZHI,CHENGXIANGDEHEIBAIXIANYIJINGHENBUFENMINGERCHENGLEZHONGJIANDEHUISE,LANSEQUXIANDEMTF=3% ,DAOLEZHEIGEJINGTOUDEFENBIANLVJIXIAN。

RENYANDUIFANCHA 5%SHISHANGNENGCHAJUE,DUIFANCHADIYU 2%SHIJIUBUNENGCHAJUELE。SUOYIYIBANXUANDING MTF ZHIWEI3%SHIDE lp/mm ZHIZUOWEIJINGTOUDEMUSHIFENBIANLV。ZAISHANGTUZHONGYOUYITIAOSHUIPINGHONGXUXIAN MTF=10% HELANXIANXIANGJIAOCHUDEFENBIANLVDAYUESHI 120lp/mm 。

FENBIANLVZAIJIAODI(RU10 lp/mm)SHIDEMTF ZHIFANYINGLEJINGTOUDETOUGUANGXING、FANCHA、DUIBIDU。HAODEJINGTOUNENGDADAO95%YISHANG,RUTUSANZHONGMTF TUDEHONGSEQUXIANSUODAIBIAODEJINGTOUHETUSIDESHILI。RUGUOFENBIANLVZAI10 lp/mmSHIMTFJIAOXIAODE,RUTUSANZHONGMTFTUDELVSEQUXIANSUODAIBIAODEZHEIGEJINGTOU10 lp/mm CHUDEMTF=84% ,TADETOUGUANGXING、FANCHADUIBIDUJIUDOUHUIBIJIAOCHA,SHILIKANTUWU。

HONGSEQUXIANDAIBIAODEJINGTOUHELVSEQUXIANDAIBIAODEJINGTOUSUIRANZUIHOUDEFENBIANLVCHABUDUO,DANHONGSEQUXIANDAIBIAODEJINGTOUDETOUGUANGXING、FANCHA、DUIBIDUYAOBILVSEQUXIANDAIBIAODEJINGTOUHAOHENDUO。

MTF曲线

TU3 HONGXIANDAIBIAODEJINGTOUFANCHAYAOBILVSEDEHAO

分辨率图4

TU4 FENBIANLV=10 lp/mmSHIMTFZHIDAFANYINGJINGTOUDETOUGUANGXINGHAOJINGTOUFANCHADADUIBIDUDA

分辨率图5

TU5 FENBIANLV=10 lp/mmSHIMTFZHIXIAOFANYINGJINGTOUDETOUGUANGXINGJIAOCHA,JINGTOUFANCHAXIAO,DUIBIDUXIAOZAIFENBIANLVJIAOGAO,BIRU 30 lp/mm SHIDE MTF ZHIFANYINGLEJINGTOUDEFENBIANLV,HAODEJINGTOUYAOZAI70%YISHANG,ERPUTONGJINGTOUJIUZAI40%YIXIALE。RUTULIUZHONGHONGXIANDAIBIAODEJINGTOUZAI30 lp/mmCHUMTF=80%,ZHUANGZAIGAOQINGSHEXIANGJISHANGNENGKANDAO1000 XIAN,JIANTUQI,ERRUTULIUZHONGZISEXIANDAIBIAODEJINGTOUZAI30 lp/mmCHUMTF=48% ,ZHUANGZAIGAOQINGSHEXIANGJISHANGNENGZHIKANDAO 500 XIAN,CANJIANTUBA。

MTF曲线

TU6 HONGXIANDAIBIAODEJINGTOUFENBIANLVYAOBIZISEDEHAO

分辨率线

TU7 30 lp/mmSHIMTFZHIGAOJINGTOUDEFENBIANLVJIUGAO,KANCESHIKANENGDAO1000XIAN

分辨率线2

TU8 30 lp/mmSHIMTFZHIDIJINGTOUDEFENBIANLVJIUDI,KANCESHIKAZHINENGDAO500XIAN

常见的 MTF 图

SHANGMIANDEMTFTUSHIJINGTOUZHONGXINCHUDEMTFZHISUIFENBIANLVlp/mm BIANHUADEQUXIANTU。DANMTFHAIHEHENDUOYINSUYOUGUAN。CESHISHIJINGTOUDEGUANGQUAN,CESHIDIANPIANLIZHONGXINDEJULI。LINGWAICESHIHEIBAIXIANTIAOSHIPINGXINGYUJINGXIAN(HUSHIFANGXIANG),HAISHICHUIZHIJINGXIANJIQIEXIANFANGXIANG(ZIWUFANGXIANGmeridionalYIBANBIAOM),MTFZHIDOUBUYIYANG。

子午线示意图

TU9 JULIJINGTOUZHONGXINBUTONGDIANMTF BUYIYANG,CESHITIAOWENPINGXINGHUOCHUIZHIYUJINGXIANMTFYEBUYIYANG

JINGTOUSHOUJICAIPIAOWANGWANGWANGHUIYIYIGEGUDINGGUANGQUAN,YONG10lp/mmFENBIANLVDEHEIBAIXIANTIAO,ZAIPIANLIJINGTOUZHONGXINBUTONGJULICHUCESHIMTFZHI,LAIBIAOSHIJINGTOUZHONGXINWAIQITAGEDIANFANCHATEXING。DANGRANYEHUIYONG30 lp/mmZAIPIANLIJINGTOUZHONGXINBUTONGJULICHUCESHIMTFZHI,LAIBIAOSHIJINGTOUZHONGXINWAIQITAGEDIANDEFENBIANLVTEXING。ZHEIZHONGMTFTUYIBANSHIF=8(GUANGQUANZHIWEI8)SHICEDE(MTFYIBANZAIF=8ZUIHAO)。YOULIANGZUQUXIAN,YIZUSHI10lp/mmYONGCUXIANBIAOSHI,LINGYIZUSHI30lp/mmYONGXIXIANBIAOSHI。MEIZUQUXIANYOULIANGTIAO,HUSHIFANGXIANG(CESHIHEIBAIXIANTIAOSHIPINGXINGYUJINGXIAN)CEDEDEMTFQUXIANYIBANYONGSHIXIANBIAOSHI,ZIWUFANGXIANG(CESHIHEIBAIXIANTIAOSHICHUIZHIYUJINGXIAN)CEDEDEMTFQUXIANYIBANYONGXUXIANBIAOSHI,ZONGGONG4TIAOQUXIAN。

MTF方向

TU 10

TU10 MOUJINGTOUJUZHONGXINBUTONGJULI(mm)CHUDEMTFTU。YOUTUZHONGXIANTIAOWOMENKEYIKANCHU,DAIBIAOFANCHA(10 lp/mm)DELANSECUXIANHENGAO,JIEJINYU0.97,SHUOMINGGAIJINGTOUZAIF8DEZUIJIAGUANGQUANCHUYOUZHEFEICHANGHAODEFANCHA。DAIBIAOFENBIANLV(30 lp/mm)DELANSEXIXIANYEZAI0.86YISHANG,SHUOMINGCIGUANGQUANXIAFENBIANLVYEJIYOU。LANSEQUXIANZHIDAOJULIZHONGXIN18HAOMIZUOYOUYIRANPINGZHI、JINZAIBIANYUANLVEYOUXIAJIANG,SHUOMINGGAIJINGTOUZAIZHENGGECHENGXIANGFANWEINEIYOUZHEYIZHIDETEXING,BIANJIAOFENBIANLVLVEYOUYIDIANXIAJIANG。SHIXIANYUXUXIANJULIHENJIN,FANYINGCHUGAIJINGTOUXIANGSANYEHENXIAO。DUIYUMTFTUDEPANDUKEYIGUINACHUYIXIAJIDIAN:

1、10 lp/mmDEDIPINQUXIANFANYINGLEJINGTOUDEFANCHATEXING,ZHEITIAOQUXIANYUEGAODAIBIAOJINGTOUFANCHADA。

2、30 lp/mmDEGAOPINQUXIANFANYINGJINGTOUFENBIANLVTEXING,ZHEITIAOQUXIANYUEGAODAIBIAOJINGTOUFENBIANLVYUEGAO。

3、HUSHIQUXIANYUZIWUQUXIANYUEJIEJINLIANGZHEJULIYUEJIAOXIAO,DAIBIAOJINGTOUXIANGSANYUEXIAO。

4、MTF QUXIANYUEPINGZHIYUEHAO,YUEPINGZHIYUESHUOMINGBIANYUANYUZHONGJIANYIZHIXINGHAO。

 

GAOQINGSHEXIANGJIJINGTOUXUANZE

GAOQINGSHEXIANGJIDEXIANGSUDOUZAIBAIWANYISHANG,DANSHIYAOCHONGFENTIXIANGAOQINGSHEXIANGJIBAIWANXIANGSUDEXINGNENGHAIXUYAOYUZHIXIANGPIPEIDEGAOQINGJINGTOU。NEIMEZENMEXUANZEGAOQINGJINGTOUNI。

WOMENZHIDAOLEYIGEJINGTOUYOUTADEZUIGAOFENBIANLVN lp/mm,NEIMEGENJUNAKUISITECAIYANGDINGLI,ZHISHAOXUYAOPEIYI2N/mmGEKONGJIANCAIYANGDIAN。ZHEIGEKEYIZHEIYANGLAILIJIE,1mmNEIYOUNTIAOHEIBAIXIANDUI,NEIMEJIUYOUN TIAOBAIXIANHENTIAOHEIXIANZONGGONG2NTIAOXIAN。YISHEXIANGJIDEYIGEGANGUANGYUANDUIYINGYIYITIAOBAIXIANHUOHEIXIAN,NEIMESHEXIANGJIZAI1mmNEIXUYAOYOU2NGEGANGUANGYUANLAIDUIYINGNTIAOBAIXIANHENTIAOHEIXIAN,SHEXIANGJIDEGANGUANGYUANMIDUJIUSHI 2N/mm,CANJIANTUSHIYI。

感光元对应黑白线对

TU 11

ZHEISHISHEXIANGJIGANGUANGYUANJIANDEFENBIANLVHEJINGTOUDEFENBIANLVZHENGHAOPIPEI,SHEIDOUMEIYOULANGFEI。TONGYANGRUGUOYIGESHEXIANGJIMEIHAOMIDEXIANGSUMIDUSHIMDIAN(pixel/mm),NEIMEYINGGAIXUANZEYIGEFENBIANLVSHIM/2lp/mmDEJINGTOU。XIAMIANWOMENJUYIGELIZI:

YOUYIGE 200WANXIANGSUSHEXIANGJI,XIANGSUSHUWEI1600×1200=1920000,GANGUANGMIANCHICUNSHI1/2 CUN。WOMENZHIDAO1/2CUNDEGANGUANGMIANTASHUIPINGCHICUNSHI6.4mm、CHUIZHICHICUNSHI4.8mm,TADESHUIPINGXIANGSUMIDUSHI 1600/6.4=250 pixel/mm,CHUIZHIXIANGSUMIDUSHI1200/4.8=250 pixel/mm,GANGUANGXIANGYUANCHICUNSHI 4um×4um。SHUIPINGXIANGSUMIDUHECHUIZHIXIANGSUMIDUYIYANG,XIANGSUSHIZHENGFANGXINGDE,RUGUOXIANGSUBUSHIZHENGFANGXINGDEJINGTOUFENBIANLVYINGCANKAOXIANGSUMIDUGAODE。ZAIZHEILISHUIPINGXIANGSUMIDUHECHUIZHIXIANGSUMIDUDOUSHI 250pixel/mm ,SUOYIJINGTOUFENBIANLVYINGXUAN 125 lp/mm。

RUGUOYIGE 2 BAIWANXIANGSUSHEXIANGJIGANGUANGMIANCHICUNSHI 1/3 CUN, 1/3 CUNDEGANGUANGMIANTASHUIPINGCHICUNSHI4.8mm,CHUIZHICHICUNSHI 3.6mm,TADESHUIPINGXIANGSUMIDUSHI 1600/4.8=333.3 pixel/mm ,CHUIZHIXIANGSUMIDUSHI 1200/3.6=333.3 pixel/mm ,SUOYIJINGTOUFENBIANLVYINGXUAN 167 lp/mm。

TONGGUOSHANGMIANLIZIWOMENHAIKANDAO,YIGEBIAOWEI 1/2 CUNDE 2 00WANXIANGSUJINGTOUBUSHIHEYU 1/3 CUNDE 200WANXIANGSUGANGUANGMIAN, ZHEIYIDIANYAOYOUSUOQUBIEHEZHONGSHI。 1/2 CUNDE 2 00WANXIANGSUJINGTOUFENBIANLVSHI 125 lp/mm ,QUYONGYU 1/3 CUNDE 4.8mm× 3.6mm GANGUANGXIANGMIAN,ZAISHUIPINGFANGXIANGYOU 125×4.8=600 XIANDUI,DUIYINGLE1200 XIANGYUAN,ZAICHUIZHIFANGXIANGYOU 125× 3.6=450 XIANDUI,DUIYINGLE 900 XIANGYUAN。 1200× 900=1080000CHABUDUOSHI110WANXIANGSU。SUOYOUBAYIGEBIAOWEI 1/2 CUNDE 2 BAIWANXIANGSUJINGTOUYONGYU 1/3 CUNDEGANGUANGMIANSHIZHINENGSHIHEYIBAIWANXIANGSUDEGANGUANGMIAN,HUOZHESHUOZHINENGDANG 1 00WANXIANGSUJINGTOUYONG。SUOYIGUANGJIANGBAIWANXIANGSUJINGTOU, BUJIANGSHIYONGGANGUANGYUANJIANDECHICUNKENENGXINXIBINGBUWANQUAN, YINCIDUIJINGTOUFENBIANLVDEMIAOSHUHAISHI lp/mmBIJIAOZHUNQUE。

YOUSHISHEXIANGJIDEZHIBIAOHUIJICHUGANGUANGXIANGYUANDECHICUNL(mm),NEIMESUODUIYINGJINGTOUFENBIANLVDEHEIBAIXIANKUANYINGGAIDOUSHIL(mm),SUOYIHEIBAILIANGTIAOXIANDUIYINGDEYITIAOXIANDUIDEKUANDUSHI 2L (mm) ,NEIMEQIDAOSHU 1/(2L)( lp/mm)JIUSHIJINGTOUDEFENBIANLV。BIRUYIGESHEXIANGJIBIAOCHUGANGUANGYUANDECHICUNSHI4um,NEIMESUOXUANJINGTOUDEJIXIANFENBIANLVXIANKUAN(BAIXIANHUOHEIXIAN)YEYINGGAISHI4um ,YIDUIHEIXIANBAIXIANDEKUANDU2×0.004mm,JINGTOUDEFENBIANLVJIUSHI1/( 2× 0.004)=125 lp/mm 。

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