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五分钟看懂镜头调制传递函数MTF

浏览: 手机彩票网日期:2017-01-19

YINGXIANGPAISHEZHILIANGZUIZHONGYAODEYINSUSHIJINGTOUDEFENBIANLVHEFANCHA。FANCHADAXIAOKEYITONGGUOYIQIHENRONGYICELIANG,ERFENBIANLVJIUBUNEIMERONGYILE!XIANZAIWOMENJINGCHANGCAIYONGPAISHEBIAOZHUNFENBIANLVKADEFANGFACELIANGJINGTOUDEFENBIANLV。YOUYUZHEIZHONGFANGFAHAISHIYAOSHOUDAORENGONGPANDUDEZHUGUANYINGXIANG,SUOYIBINGBUSHIZUIZHUNQUEZUILIXIANGDEFANGFA。

XIANZAI,RANGWOMENCONGLINGYIGEJIAODUCHUFA,JIANGJINGTOUKANZUOYIGEXINXICHUANDIXITONG:BEIPAISHEJINGWUFANSHECHULAIDEGUANGXIANSHITADESHURUXINXI,ERTUPIANSHANGDECHENGXIANGJIUSHITADESHUCHUXINXI。YIGEYOUXIUDEJINGTOUYIWEIZHETADESHUCHUDEXIANGZHENSHIDEZAIXIANLESHURUFANGJINGWUDETEXING。

YOUSHUXUEZHENGMINGKEZHI,RENHEZHOUQIXINGTUXINGDOUKEYIFENJIECHENGLIANGDUANZHENGXIANBIANHUADETUXINGDEDIEJIA,ERRENHEFEIZHOUQITUXINGYOUKEYIKANZUOSHIZHOUQITUXINGPIANDUANDEZUHE。YINCI,YANJIUJINGTOUDUIZHENGXIANBIANHUADETUXINGDEFANYING,JIUKEYIYANJIUJINGTOUDEXINGNENG!LIANGDUANZHENGXIANBIANHUADEZHOUQITUXINGJIAOZUO“ZHENGXIANGUANGZHA”。WEILEMIAOSHUZHENGXIANGUANGZHADEXIANTIAOMIDU,WOMENYINRULE“KONGJIANPINLV”DEGAINIAN。YIBANZHENGXIANBODEPINLVZHIDANWEISHIJIAN(MEIMIAOZHONG)ZHENGXIANBODEZHOUQISHU,DUIYINGDE,ZHENGXIANGUANGZHADEKONGJIANPINLVJIUSHIDANWEIZHANGDU(MEIHAOMI)DELIANGDUANZHAOZHENGXIANBIANHUADETUXINGDEZHOUQISHU。

正弦光栅

TU1 ZHENGXIANGUANGZHA

DIANXINGDEZHENGXIANGUANGZHARUSHANGTUSUOSHI。XIANGLINDELIANGGEZUIDAZHIDEJULISHIZHENGXIANGUANGZHADEKONGJIANZHOUQI,DANWEISHIHAOMI。KONGJIANZHOUQIDEDAOSHUJIUSHIKONGJIANPINLV(Spatial Frequency),DANWEISHIXIANDUI/HAOMI(lp/mm, linepairs/mm)。ZHENGXIANGUANGZHAZUILIANGCHUYUZUIANCHUDECHABIE,FANYINGLETUXINGDEFANCHA(DUIBIDU)。SHEZUIDALIANGDUWEIImax,ZUIXIAOLIANGDUWEIImin,WOMENYONGDIAOZHIDU(Modulation)BIAOSHIFANCHADEDAXIAO。DIAOZHIDUMDINGYIRUXIA:

M=(Imax-Imin)/(Imax+Imin)

HENMINGXIAN,DIAOZHIDUJIEYU0HE1ZHIJIAN。DIAOZHIDUYUEDA,YIWEIZHEFANCHAYUEDA。DANGZUIDALIANGDUYUZUIXIAOLIANGDUWANQUANXIANGDENGSHI,FANCHAWANQUANXIAOSHI,ZHEISHIDEDIAOZHIDUDENGYU0。

WOMENJIANGZHENGXIANGUANGZHAZHIYUJINGTOUQIANFANG、ZAIJINGTOUCHENGXIANGCHUCELIANGXIANGDEDIAOZHIDU,FAXIANDANGGUANGZHAKONGJIANPINLVHENDISHI,XIANGDEDIAOZHIDUJIHUDENGYUZHENGXIANGUANGZHADEDIAOZHIDU;SUIZHEKONGJIANPINLVDETIGAO,XIANGDEDIAOZHIDUZHUJIANDANDIAOXIAJIANG;KONGJIANPINLVGAODAOYIDINGCHENGDU,XIANGDEDIAOZHIDUZHUJIANJIANGDIDAO0、WANQUANSHIQULEFANCHA!

正弦信号通过镜头后,它的调制度的变化是正弦信号空间频率的函数,这个函数称为调制传递函数MTF(Modulation Transfer Function)。对于原来调制度为M的正弦光栅,如果经过镜头到达像平面的像的调制度为M ’ ,则MTF函数值为:
MTF值= M ’/ M

KEYIKANCHU,MTFZHIBIDINGJIEYU0HE1ZHIJIAN,BINGQIEYUEJIEJIN1、JINGTOUDEXINGNENGYUEHAO!

RUGUOJINGTOUDEMTFZHIDENGYU1,JINGTOUSHUCHUDEDIAOZHIDUWANQUANFANYINGLESHURUZHENGXIANGUANGZHADEFANCHA;ERRUGUOSHURUDEZHENGXIANGUANGZHADEDIAOZHIDUSHI1,ZESHUCHUTUXIANGDEDIAOZHIDUZHENGHAODENGYUMTFZHI!SUOYI,MTFHANSHUDAIBIAOLEJINGTOUZAIYIDINGKONGJIANPINLVXIADEFANCHA。

MTFZONGHEFANYINGLEJINGTOUDEFANCHAHEFENBIANLVTEXING, MTFSHIYONGYIQICELIANGDE,YINERKEYIWANQUANPAICHUKEGUANYINSUDEYINGXIANGHERENGONGPANDUDEZHUGUANYINSUYINGXIANG,SHIMUQIANZUIWEIKEGUANZUIWEIZHUNQUEDEJINGTOUPINGJIAFANGFA。MTFZHIBUDANSHOUJINGTOUXIANGCHAYINGXIANG,HAIYAOSHOUDAOKONGJIANPINLV、GUANGQUANHEXIANGCHANGDAXIAOSANGEBIANLIANGDEYINGXIANG,SUOYIYIBANHUIZHIERWEIDEMTFQUXIANSHIDOUSHIGUDINGKONGJIANPINLV、GUANGQUANHEXIANGCHANGSANGEBIANLIANGZHONGDELIANGGE、SHENGYUYIGEZUOWEIHENGZUOBIAO,BINGQIEYIMTFZHIZUOWEIZONGZUOBIAO。

JINGTOUSHIYIGUANGZHOUWEIZHONGXINDEZHONGXINDUICHENGJIEGOU,XIANGCHANGZHONGXINGEGEFANGXIANGDEMTFZHISHIXIANGTONGDE。DANSHISHOUDAOJINGTOUXIANGSANDEYINGXIANG,ZAIPIANLIZHONGXINDEWEIZHI,YANQIEXIANFANGXIANGDEXIANTIAOYUYANJINGXIANGFANGXIANGDEXIANTIAODEMTFZHIWANGWANGSHIBUTONGDE!WOMENJIANGPINGXINGYUZHIJINGDEXIANTIAOCHANSHENGDEMTFQUXIANCHENGWEIHUSHIQUXIAN,BIAOWEIS (sagittal),ERJIANGPINGXINGYUQIEXIANDEXIANTIAOCHANSHENGDEMTFQUXIANCHENGWEIZIWUQUXIAN,BIAOWEIM(meridional)。ZHEIYANG,WOMENHUIZHIDEMTFQUXIANYIBANYOULIANGTIAO:SQUXIANHEMQUXIAN。 

子午方向和弧矢方向

TU2ZIWUFANGXIANGHEHUSHIFANGXIANG

KONGJIANPINLVHENDISHI,MTFZHIQUYUYIGEJIEJINYU1DEGUDINGZHI。ZHEIGEZHISHIJIJIUSHIJINGTOUDUIDAMIANJISEKUAIDEFANCHA,FANYINGLEJINGTOUGUYOUDEFANCHAZHI。SUIZHEKONGJIANPINLVZENGGAO,MTFZHIZHUJIANXIAJIANG,ZHIDAOQUYU0。RENYANDUIFANCHAWEI0.05DEYINGXIANGSHANGNENGFENBIAN,ERDANGFANCHADIYU0.02SHIJIUWANQUANBUNENGCHAJUELE。SUOYIYIBANXUANDINGMTFZHIWEI0.03SHIDEKONGJIANPINLVZUOWEIJINGTOUDEMUSHIFENBIANLV。ZHEIYANG,TONGGUOMTFQUXIANDEHUIZHI,JINGTOUDEFANCHAHEMUSHIFENBIANLVJIUDOUCHENGWEIKECELIANGDELE!

TU3SHIMTFZHISUIKONGJIANPINLVBIANHUADEQINGKUANG,WOMENCHENGZHIWEI“PINFUQUXIAN”。TUZHONG,GENJUDIPINSHIDEMTFZHIHEMTFDENGYU0.03SHIDEKONGJIANPINLV,KEYIFANGBIANDEDECHUJINGTOUDEFANCHAHEMUSHIFENBIANLV。

TU4SHISANZHIBUTONGJINGTOUDEMTFPINFUQUXIANDUIBI,QUXIANA(HONGSE)DIPINDUANMTFZHIHENGAOFANYINGCHUTAYOUHENGAODEFANCHA,ERGAOPINDUANMTFZHIJIAOGAOFANYINGCHUTADEFENBIANLVYEBUCUO,SHIYIZHIZONGHEXINGNENGJIAOGAODEJINGTOU。QUXIANB(LANSE)ZAIKONGJIANPINLVJIAODISHIBIAOXIANCHUHENGAODEMTFZHI,SHUOMINGTAYOUJIAOHAODEFANCHA;ERZAIKONGJIANPINLVJIAOGAOSHIMTFZHIHENDI,BIAOMINGTADEFENBIANLVJIAOCHA。QUXIANC(LVSE)ZAIKONGJIANPINLVJIAODISHIMTFZHIBINGBUGAO,SHUOMINGTADEFANCHAJIAOCHA;ERZAIKONGJIANPINLVHENGAOSHITADEMTFZHIXIAJIANGJIAOSHAO,BIAOMINGTADEFENBIANLVJIAOGAO。YIBANDE,WOMENKEYIBIJIAOMTFQUXIANXIABUBAOWEIDEKONGJIANLAIDAZHIPANDUANJINGTOUZHILIANG,MTFQUXIANBAOWEIDEKONGJIANYUEDAYUEHAO。

随空间频率变化的MTF曲线

TU3 SUIKONGJIANPINLVBIANHUADEMTFQUXIAN

 利用MTF曲线判断镜头质量

TU4 LIYONGMTFQUXIANPANDUANJINGTOUZHILIANG

DALIANGCHANPINCELIANGDESHIJIYINGYONGZHONG,WEILEJIANHUACELIANG,WANGWANGZHICECHUTEDINGTIAOJIANXIAXIANGCHANGZHONGTEDINGDIANDEMTFZHI,ZUOWEIPINGJIAJINGTOUDEJIBENBIAOZHUN。ZHIYAOZAITEDINGTIAOJIANXIACELIANGDEMTFZHIDAYUBIAOZHUN,JIUKEYIRENWEIJINGTOUSHIHEGEDE。

WOGUOGUOJIABIAOZHUNGB9917-88ZHONGGUIDINGLESHEYINGJINGTOUZAITEDINGKONGJIANPINLVXIAPINGJIACHENGXIANGZHILIANGDEMTFBIAOZHUN,RUXIALIEBIAO1、BIAO2SUOSHI。

BIAO1 135XIANGJI(36mm*24mm)SHEYINGJINGTOUDEMTFBIAOZHUN

135相机摄影镜头的MTF标准

BIAO2 120XIANGJI(56mm*54mm)SHEYINGJINGTOUDEMTFBIAOZHUN

120相机摄影镜头的MTF标准

ZAITEDINGTIAOJIANXIACELIANGDEMTFZHIZHIYAODAYUDENGYUGUOJIABIAOZHUNJIWEIHEGE!

YISHANGBIAOZHUNQISHIZHIGUIDINGLEHEGEJINGTOUMTFDEZUIDIXIANDU,ZHUANYESHEYINGRENYUANHESHEYINGAIHAOZHEDUISHEYINGJINGTOUZHILIANGYOUZHEGENGGAODEYAOQIU。WEICI,XUDUOCHANGJIAGONGBULEZIJISHEYINGJINGTOUDEMTFQUXIANGONGYONGHUCANKAO,YOUXIEDULICELIANGJIGOUYEDUISHICHANGSHANGGEZHONGJINGTOUDEMTFJINXINGLECESHI,GONGBULECESHIJIEGUODEMTFQUXIAN。WEILEBIANYULEJIEJINGTOUXIANGCHANGNEIDETEXING,ZHEIXIEQUXIANDADUOCAIYONGDAOXIANGCHANGZHONGXINDEJULIZUOWEIHENGZUOBIAO,WOMENCHENGZHIWEI“CHANGFUQUXIAN”。

TU5SHIJIANENGSHOUJICAIPIAOWANGGONGBUDEBIAOZHUNJINGTOUEF50mm/F1.4 USMDEMTFQUXIAN。TUZHONGGONGYOU8TIAOQUXIAN,HENGZUOBIAOSHICELIANGDIANDAOXIANGCHANGZHONGXINDEJULI,DANWEISHIHAOMI。ZONGZUOBIAOSHIMTFZHI。CUXIANSHIKONGJIANPINLVWEI10XIANDUI/HAOMIDEJIEGUO,XIXIANSHI30XIANDUI/HAOMIDE;HEISEQUXIANSHIZUIDAGUANGQUAN(DUIYUZHEIGEJINGTOUSHIF1.4)DE,LANSEQUXIANSHIGUANGQUANF8(YIBANSHIZUIJIAGUANGQUAN)DE;SHIXIANSHISQUXIAN(HUSHIQUXIAN),XUXIANSHIMQUXIAN(ZIWUQUXIAN)。

CONGTU5DELANSEXIANTIAOWOMENKEYIKANCHU,DAIBIAOFANCHADEDIPINCUXIANHENGAO,JIEJINYU1,SHUOMINGGAIJINGTOUZAIF8DEZUIJIAGUANGQUANYOUZHEFEICHANGHAODEFANCHA。DAIBIAOFENBIANLVDEXIXIANYEZAI0.86YISHANG,SHUOMINGCIGUANGQUANXIAFENBIANLVJIYOU。LANSEQUXIANZHIDAOJULIZHONGXIN18HAOMIZUOYOUYIRANPINGZHI、JINZAIBIANYUANLVEYOUXIAJIANG,SHUOMINGGAIJINGTOUXIANGCHANGNEIZHENGGEYOUZHEYIZHIDETEXING,BIANJIAOFENBIANLVLVEYOUYIDIANXIAJIANG。SHIXIANYUXUXIANJULIHENJIN,FANYINGCHUGAIJINGTOUXIANGSANYEHENXIAO。HEISEQUXIANFANYINGCHUZAI1.4DEDAGUANGQUANTIAOJIANXIA,WULUNSHIFANCHA(CUXIAN)HAISHIFENBIANLV(XIXIAN)DOUYOUMINGXIANDEXIAJIANG,ERQIEBIANYUANXIAJIANGGENGWEILIHAI。

佳能EF50/1.4 USM标准镜头的MTF曲线

TU5 JIANENGEF50/1.4 USMBIAOZHUNJINGTOUDEMTFQUXIAN

BIAO3 TU5DETULI

图5的图例

ZHEIZHONGMTFDE“CHANGFUQUXIAN”SHICHANGJIAHUODISANFANGTIGONGDEMTFQUXIANZUICHANGJIANDEXINGSHI,TONGGUODUITADEFENXI,KEYILEJIEJINGTOUDEZHUYAOGUANGXUETEXING,DUIJINGTOUCHENGXIANGZHILIANGYOUQUANMIANZONGHELEJIE。

YIBANDEMTFTUTIGONGLIANGZUBUTONGKONGJIANPINLVDECHANGFUQUXIAN,FENBIEDAIBIAOFANCHAHEFENBIANLV:DIPINXUANZAIMTFPINFUQUXIANSHUIPINGBUFEN,FANYINGJINGTOUDEFANCHATEXING;GAOPINXUANZAIMTFPINFUQUXIANXIAJIANGBIJIAODOUQIAODEBUFEN,FANYINGJINGTOUDEFENBIANLVTEXING。

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